401(k)和IRA:一种联合储蓄策略

Contributing to an employer-sponsored retirement plan or an IRA is a big step on the road to retirement, but contributing to both can significantly boost your retirement assets. 最近的一项研究发现, 平均, individuals who owned both a 401(k) and an IRA at some point during the six-year period of the study had combined balances about 2.5 times higher than those who owned only a 401(k) or an IRA. And people who owned both types of accounts consistently over the period had even higher balances.1



Here is how the two types of plans can work together in your retirement savings strategy.

方便与. 控制

雇主资助的计划,如401(k), 403(b), and 457(b) plans offer a convenient way to save through pre-tax salary deferrals, 捐款限额很高:20美元,500 in 2022 ($19,2021年为500美元),另外还增加了6美元,如果年龄在50岁或以上,则为500. Although the costs for 投资s offered in the plan may be lower than those offered in an IRA, these plans typically offer limited 投资 choices and have restrictions on control over the account.

IRA contribution limits are much lower: $6,000 in 2021 and 2022 ($7,000 if age 50 or older). But you can usually choose from a wide variety of 投资s, and the account is yours to control and keep regardless of your employment situation. If you leave your job, you can roll any assets in your employer plan into your IRA.2 Whereas contributions to an employer plan generally must be made by December 31, you can contribute to an IRA up to the April tax filing deadline.

匹配和多样化

Many employer plans match a percentage of your contributions. 如果你的雇主提供这个项目, it would be wise to contribute at least enough to receive the full match. 捐款越多越好, 但你也可以考虑资助你的个人退休账户, 特别是当供款是可扣除的(见下文).

还有爱尔兰共和军提供的灵活性和控制权, 在两种类型的账户中都持有资产, 不同的基础投资, 能让你的投资组合多样化吗. Diversification is a method used to help manage 投资 risk; it does not guarantee a profit or protect against 投资 loss.


两个也许比一个好

近三分之一的美国人.S. households have an IRA and an employer-sponsored retirement plan.

你的比例.S. households with tax-advantaged retirement savings accounts

你的比例.S. household with tax-advantaged retirement savings accounts: 36% No IRA or employer-sponsored plan. 31%的个人退休账户和雇主资助计划. 27%雇主资助计划. IRA只有6%.
资料来源:投资公司协会,2021年


规则和限制

Although annual contribution limits for employer plans and IRAs are separate, your ability to 扣除 traditional IRA contributions phases out at higher income levels if you are covered by a workplace plan: modified adjusted gross income (MAGI) of $68,000 to $78,单份申请是000美元,109美元,000 to $129,2022年,联合申报者可获得1万美元(66美元,000 to $76,000年和105美元,000 to $125,000 in 2021).3 You can make non扣除ible contributions to a traditional IRA regardless of income.

Eligibility to contribute to a Roth IRA phases out at higher income levels regardless of coverage by a workplace plan: MAGI of $129,000 to $144,一份申请就000美元,还有204美元,000 to $214,2022年,联合申报者可获得1万美元(125美元,000 to $140,000年和198美元,000 to $208,000 in 2021).

Contributions to employer-sponsored plans and traditional IRAs are generally made on a pre-tax or tax-扣除ible basis and accumulate tax deferred. Distributions are taxed as ordinary income and may be subject to a 10% federal income tax penalty if withdrawn prior to age 59½ (with certain exceptions). Non扣除ible contributions to a traditional IRA are not taxable when withdrawn, 但任何收入都要缴纳普通所得税. Required minimum distributions (RMDs) from employer-sponsored plans and traditional IRAs must begin for the year you reach age 72 (70½ if you were born before July 1, 1949). 然而, you are generally not required to take distributions from an employer plan as long as you still work for that employer.

罗斯个人退休账户的贡献是不可扣除的, but they can be withdrawn at any time without penalty or taxes. To qualify for the tax-free and penalty-free withdrawal of earnings, Roth IRA distributions must meet a five-year holding requirement and take place after age 59½ (with certain exceptions). 罗斯个人退休帐户的原持有人可获豁免rmd. Beneficiaries of all IRAs and employer plans must take RMDs based on their age and relationship to the original owner.